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Cell Biology

Introduction

Cell is a smallest unit of any living organism and is a very essential part for functioning of life. The branch of biology which deals with the study of structure and functions of cell is called cytology. The science which deals with the study of living organism at its cellular level is called cell biology.

Robert Hooke is a first scientist who defined the term ‘cell’ through his observation of the sections of bark of oak tree. Latter Leeuwenhock developed microscope and observed living cells which he described as bacteria, amoeba and red blood cells. According to these entire hypotheses, cell theory is developed.

Cells are two types- Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. The cell surrounded by a complex cell wall and sows great variation in their shapes and sizes are called Prokaryotic cell. Bacteria and Blue green algae are examples of Prokaryotic cell. The cells having well organized nucleus is called Eukaryotic cell. All plants and animals are examples of Eukaryotic cell. Cells are responsible for metabolic activities in living organism. Metabolic activities are based on chemical reaction and material required for these are inorganic and organic molecules like water, minerals, carbohydrates, protein, lipids, vitamins, enzymes etc.

Cells are divided into two and the process of division of cell is called cell division. Cell division is of two types – Mitosis and Meiosis. During cell division, if the number of chromosomes remains same as parent cell, then it is mitosis cell division. If the number of chromosomes becomes half the number of its parent cell, then it is called as meiosis cell division. Each species maintains their characters generation after generation, which is called as Inheritance. However, at a same time, offspring are not exact copies of their parents which is called as variation. If any sudden change occurs in a hereditary character, then it is called as mutation.

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