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Animal Biology


An animal – a living organism – is mobile and having heterotrophic mode of nutrition. There are various species of animals, which includes animals from unicellular protozoan to the highest mammals. As per Whittaker classification, all animals are included in Eukaryotic kingdom, which is further divided into Protista and Metazoan. Animals are either unicellular or multicellurar. Unicellular animals are amoeba and paramecium. Multicellular animals are further divided into parazoa and eumetazoa.

Internal structure of animal is made up cells. Cells aggregate and forms tissue. Animal tissues are classified into four types – Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue and Nervous tissue. Epithelium tissues are further divided into simple and stratified epithelium. Connecting tissue acts as a filling material between organs and further divided into three types- connective tissue proper, skeletal tissue and liquid connective tissue. Muscle tissues are attached with organs and made up of contractile proteins. They are further divided into three types – skeletal muscle, visceral muscle and cardiac muscle. The branch of biology which deals with the study of animal tissue is called Histology. Multicellular animals show tissue organization and tissue organize to form organs.

All animals show diversity in their habitats, their food and their lifestyle. Depending on the lifestyle adapted by animal, they are classified in two groups – Invertebrates and Vertebrates. Cockroach and earthworm are examples of invertebrates. Rates and frogs are examples of vertebrates. All animals are triplobastic, coelomate and possess bilateral symmetry of body.

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