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Plant Biology - Fruit

Fruit:

The fertilized and mature ovary is called fruit and outer wall of ovary is called pericarp. Mature ovary contains fertilized ovule which is called as seed and is covered by pericarp in a fruit.

Types of fruit:

Based on the parts of flower:

1.  True fruit – Fruit develops only from an ovary
2.  False fruit – Fruit develops over and above the ovary, the thalamus or other part of flower is involved. Ex – Apple – develops from thalamus, Cashew nut – develops from peduncle

Based on their origin and development:

1. 
Simple fruit – Fruit develops from a single ovary and is of two types – Dry and fleshy

a)  Dry simple fruit – pericarp is dry and is of two types dehiscent and indehiscent

I.  Dehiscent fruit – Fruit wall is dehisce when it is ripen and liberates the seed
Follicle dehiscent fruit – Calotropis vinca
Legume dehiscent fruit – Pea Bean
Capsule dehiscent fruit – Cotton, Datura

II.  Indehiscent fruit - Fruit wall is not dehisce when it is ripen and decomposes in a natural ways and releases the seeds e.g. Maize grain

b) 
Fleshy simple fruit – pericarp is fleshy and differentiated into different layers

I.  Drupe fleshy fruit – Pericarp is differentiated into three layers, inner endocarp is hard, middle mesocarp is fleshy and outer epicarp is thin and skinny. Ex- Mango, Indian plum, coconut

II.  Berry fleshy fruit – Pericarp is divided into three layers but inner endocarp is not hard e.g. tomato, cucumber, orange


2.  Aggregate fruit – Fruit develops from apocarpous, polycarpellary gynoecia. Ovary is free and is developed into an independent frutilet.
 

a)  Etaerio of berries – Custard apple
b)  Etaerio of follicles – Calotropis
c)  Etaerio of drupes - Raspberry

3.  Composite fruit – Fruit develops from ovary of multiple flowers, e.g. Pineapple, Jack fruit, etc

Seed:

Mature ovary contains fertilized ovule which is called as seed. Seeds are different in their shapes, sizes, capacities or germination and feasibility.

Outer layer of seed is called seed coat. Cotyledons, plumule and radicals are present within its seed coats.

Plumule – responsible for development of shoot system
Radical – responsible for development of root system
Cotyledon – responsible for storage of food within it or in a separate region called endosperm


Types of seeds:

1.  Dicotyledonous – Contains two cotyledons e. g. Bean, Ground nut
2.  Monocotyledons – Contains one cotyledons e. g. Maize
3.  Endospermic seed – Seed contains separate region for storage of food is called endospermic seed, e. g. Maize
4.  Nonendospermic seed – Seed does not contains separate region for storage of food but food is stored into cotyledons itself, e. g. Bean, Sunflower



Self study:

Q-1: Match the following

A B
Fruit Outer layer of fruit
Seed Fertilized and mature ovary
Pericarp Outer layer of seed
Flower Fertilized and mature ovule

Answer:

A B
Fruit Fertilized and mature ovary
Seed Fertilized and mature ovule
Pericarp Outer layer of fruit
Seedcoat Outer layer of seed


Q-2: Separate region of cotyledons which stores food during dormant period is called ……………..
  1. Pericarp
  2. Endosperm
  3. Endocarp
  4. Monocarp

Answer: Separate region of cotyledons which stores food during dormant period is called endosperm.

Q-3: Fruit develops only from the ovary is called …………….

  1. True fruit
  2. False fruit
  3. Dry fruit
  4. Aggregate fruit

Answer: Fruit develops only from the ovary is called true fruit.
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