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Gravimetric Analysis

Introduction

Gravimetric analysis (GA) is a part of quantitative analysis and is defines as the process of weighing an element or a definite compound of the element in as pure form as possible. The determination of GA is depends on transformation of the element into a pure stable compound which can be readily converted into a form suitable for weighing. It involves the separation of the constituents to be estimated in the form of an insoluble compound of known composition. The insoluble compound is washed to make it free from impurities, dried and weighed. From the weight of the compound, composition and amount of constituent is calculated. Depending on the nature of the sample, results are expressed in terms of percentage weight by weight (w/w) or weight by volume (w/v).

Compare to volumetric analysis, GA is slow, time consuming and tedious. However, result obtained by GA is very accurate. It is performed by precipitation, filtration, washing, ignite on or drying method. GA is generally applicable for analysis of standard which are used for calibration of different instruments. For example determination of aluminium from alum or determination of zinc as zinc oxide from zinc sulphate is done by gravimetric methods. GA is quite complicated and gives less precision so pharmacopoeia generally avoids AG when equally accurate methods are available.

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