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Thermodynamics

Introduction

Thermodynamics is a study of change in energy associated with physical and chemical reaction. It is based on four laws which involve the study of relation between energy and chemical reaction. These are known as zero, first, second and third law of thermodynamics. The zeroth law of thermodynamics is based on thermal equilibrium of temperatures between two thermally conducting substance. The first law of thermodynamics is based on conservation of energy. According to first law, it is not possible to create or destroy energy, but energy changes from one form to another form. The second law of thermodynamics explains the direction in which the spontaneous reaction occurs. The third law of thermodynamics is based on the value of entropy of a perfectly pure crystalline substance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Any chemical reaction when carried out at constant pressure, the change in energy is called enthalpy. Entropy is defined as the measure of the disorder or randomness of a substance. At definite temperature and pressure, the entropy of one mole of a substance has only one constant value.

The quantity of heat require to raise the temperature of any substance by 1 °C is called the heat capacity of that substance. The quantity of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 gram substance by 1 °C is called the specific heat capacity. The quantity of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1 °C is called molar heat capacity.

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