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Theory of Atom

Rutherford’s theory of atom: Rutherford has proposed a model for hydrogen atom in 1911. According to Rutherford, hydrogen atoms contain protons in a nucleus and electrons are moving around the nucleus.

Limitation of Rutherford’s theory of atom – Lack of stability.

Bohr’s Model of atom: Neil Bohr proposed a model for hydrogen atom based on Quantum theory of radiation. He has described the arrangement of electrons in an atom.

According to Bohr’s concept, hydrogen atom contains a nucleus with one proton and one electron moving around the nucleus in a circular path called as
Orbit.

As nucleus and electrons have opposite charges, they attract each other and depend on the distance between them. The distance is called radius of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is increases, the attraction between nucleus and electron is decreases.

Limitation of Bohr’s model:
·  An electron moving in circular orbit is incorrect.
·  The radius of the orbit has definite value
·  Do not explain the spectra of multi-electron atoms.


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