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Process of Titration

In titration process, two solutions are prepared. Substance to be analyzed (titrate) is taken in a conical flask and solution of known concentration (titrant) is filled in burette. Certain auxiliary agents are added in a conical flask to identify the end point of titration. Solution from burette is added to the conical flask till marked color change occurs at the completion of chemical reaction. At completion of reaction, auxiliary agent reacts with titrant and gives color change. This process is called as titration.
In short, the process of determining the volume of the titrant required to react completely with a known volume of solution under analysis is called as titration.

  Fig. Titration Apparatus

Importance of Volumetric analysis:
  1. High precision is obtained
  2. Simple apparatus is required
  3. Easy process and fast result
  4. Different methods for different types of substance

Types of titration methods:

Direct Titration: Substance is directly titrated with titrant by using simple indicator.
    Example: titration of strong acid (HCl, HNO
3) with strong base (NaOH, KOH)
Indirect Titration: Substance is not directly titrate but precipitated or removed from the reaction and the product formed has to be titrated.   
Back Titration: Use for the substances which are not water soluble or which are weak acids or bases.

Classification of Titrimetric Methods:
Titrimetric methods are classified into various types depending on the nature of chemical reactions.
  1. Acid –Base Titration
  2. Redox Titration
  3. Complexometric Titration
  4. Precipitation Titration
  5. Zeta Potential
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