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Genetic Engineering


Human anatomy is different then animal and plant anatomy. So, the study of human genetics is different then animals and plants due to human’s long life span and birth of single offspring. There are different method for studying human genetics like chromosomal studies, statistical analysis and pedigree analysis.

DNA is a genetic material present in every cell of the living organism and is responsible for distinct characters expressed by organism. DNA is made up of two polynucleotide chain united through hydrogen bonds. During the time of cell division, DNA also divided into two molecules of DNA, which are exact copies of original DNA. This process of forming two DNA molecules from original DNA molecules is called DNA replication and is controlled by itself.

RNA is another genetic material and made up of single polynucleotide chain. There are three types of RNA are present in the cell based on their structure and function. They are messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA. The synthesis of m-RNA from DNA is called transcription. After transcription process, translation of amino acid occurs which helps in synthesis of protein.

In recombinant-DNA technology, a new DNA is prepared by combining two fragments of DNA derived from two different organisms. This new DNA is called recombinant –DNA. Insulin is produced by such technology. Recombinant-DNA is self replicated and cloned recombinant genes are stored in gene banks. The total DNA present in the cell is called its genome. The study of genome is called genomics.

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