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Buffers

The solution that resists the change in pH when small quantities of acid or alkali are added to it, is called as buffer. Buffer is a mixture of either weak acid and its salt or weak base and its salt.

Types of buffer solution:

1.  Acidic buffer solution
  Souliton containing misture of weak acid and its salt is called as acidic buffer soution like   acetic acid and sodium acetate

2.  Basic buffer solution
  Souliton containing misture of weak base and its salt is called as basic buffer soution like ammonium hydroxide and ammonium chloride


Properties of Buffer solution:

  1. The pH remains constant
  2. The pH of soultion does not change on dilution
  3. The pH remains constant on keeping for long time.
  4. The pH does not change even after addition of small quantities of acid or base.

Buffer capacity:

The amount of acid or base that must be added to the buffer solution to produce unit change of pH is called as buffer capacity (ß). Buffer capacity has a positive value.
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