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Acid and Base

ACIDS

Definition & Properties:
  Acids are the compounds which has
·  Sour taste
·  Turns litmus blue to red
·  Gives hydrogen ion in solution
·  Reacts with metals to release flammable gas


Examples: Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Acetic acid (CH3COOH)

Reaction:  HCl → H
+ + Cl-
   H2SO → 2H+ + SO4-
   CH3COOH  → H+ + CH3COO-


BASES

Definition & Properties:
  Bases are the compounds which has
·  Bitter taste
·  Turns litmus red to blue
·  Gives hydroxide ion in solution
·  Soapy in nature


Examples: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Potassium hydroxide (KOH)

Reaction:  NaOH  →  Na+ + OH-
   KOH   →  K+ + OH-



Theories of Acid and Base

Arrhenius theory:

Arrhenius acid: Substance that produces H+ ion in solution
    Example: HCl
Arrhenius base: Substance that produces OH
- ion in solution.
    Example: NaOH

Limitation:
1.  Definition is based on aqueous condition only.
2.  Substance should contain H
+ and OH- ion. Substances which do not contain H+ and OH- ion can not be explained by Arrhenius theory.
Example: AlCl
3 acts as acid in aqueous solution and NH3 acts as a base.
3.  Theory is unable to explain the acidic and basic characters of substances in nonaqueous condition.
Example: NH
4NO3 in ammonia


More Examples:
For a chemical reaction:


Where:
A: acid
B: base

To determine the strength of the acid, we use the acid dissociation constant, which is given by:



For a chemical reaction:


Where:
A: acid
B: base

To determine the strength of the base, we use the base dissociation constant, which is given by:





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