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Solids, liquids and gases


Chemistry is a study of molecules exits in three different states – solids, liquids and gases. These states depend on their volume, temperature and pressure. As compare to solid and liquids, the effect of changes in volume, temperature and pressure on definite quantity of gas is measurable. From the study of this relationship, the laws of gas are evolved. Boyle’s law depends on the relation between volumes and pressure at constant temperature of definite quantity of gas. At constant temperature, the volume of a definite quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Charle’s law is based on the relation between the volume of a gas and absolute temperature of a definite quantity of gas at constant pressure. At constant pressure, the volume of a definite quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

According to Gay Lussac;s law, when the volume of a definite quantity of a gas is kept constant, temperature is increased, pressure also increased and if temperature decreased pressure also decreased. Dalton’s law of partial pressure is based on the fact that pressure of a gaseous mixture is the sum of partial pressure of each component of gas. Graham’s law of diffusion explains that the rate of diffusion of various gases at same conditions of temperature and pressure is inversely proportional to the square root of their densities.

Avogadro’s principle is based on the number of molecules of any gas in same volume at standard temperature and pressure is same.

Solids are classified into four types depending on ionic bonds between the components of solid substances. These types are ionic solid substances, metallic solid substances, network solid substances and molecular solid substances.

Liquids substances are fluid by nature and have measurable characteristics of physical properties like volume, fluidity, non-compressibility, diffusion, evaporation, vapor pressure, surface tension and viscosity.

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