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Sodium

Sodium is considered to be the most abundant extra-cellular ion and its level in the blood is controlled by aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The main source of sodium is salt and is excreted by kidney.

Important functions of sodium in body are as below.
To communicate signals in brain, nervous system and muscles
To regulate water in body
Helps in maintaining osmotic pressure in various body fluids
Prevents normal irritability of muscle and the permeability of cell


Condition under where sodium level is low in body are
·  Diabetes inspidus
·  Metabolic acidosis
·  Diarrhoea
·  Vomiting
·  Addison’s disease


Condition under where sodium lever is high in body are:
·  Hyper adrenalism
·  Severe dehydration
·  Certain types of brain damage


High concentration of sodium in the body is called as Hypernatremia and symptoms are:
·  Intense thirst
·  Fatigue
·  Restlessness
·  Agitation
·  Coma


Low concentration of sodium in the body is called Hyponatremia and symptoms are:
·  Muscular weakness
dizziness
·  Headache
·  Hypotension
·  Tachycardia
·  shock

A normal blood sodium concentration is 134-145 mmol/L.
Normal intake of sodium per day varies from 5 to 20 gm
Daily requirement of sodium in body is 3 to 5 kg


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