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Classification of Living Organism: Whittaker classification

Whittaker classification:

A scientist Whittakar has proposed a five kingdom system of classification for living organism.
These five kingdom system includes – Prokaryota, Protista, Fungi, Metaphyta and Metazoa. This system is based on complex nature of cell structure, body organization, and evolution of cell and mode of nutrition.


Kingdom: Prokaryota (Monera)

Organism having single cell and lacking cell organelles are comes under Prokaryota or Monera. They possess mass of nucleoproteins. This kingdom is called Prokaryota because organism contains prokaryotic cell (without nucleus). This kingdom is further divided into two types

  Schizophyta (Bacteria) – E.coli
  Cyanophyta – Blue green algae


Kingdom: Protista

Unicellular or Multicellular organism having a well developed nucleus is comes under Protista. They do not show division of labor and further classified based on their mode of nutrition.

  Autotrophs – Algae
  Phagotrophs or heterotrophs – Protozoa
  Symbionts – Fungi


Kingdom: Fungi

They possess a thick cell wall made up of chitin and cellulose and scattered ribosome. They show saprophytic or parasitic mode of nutrition.
Example – yeast and mushroom


Kingdom: Metaphyta

It is a plant kingdom and shows tissue organization. Due to division of labor, organs are formed in plants. It is also known as embryophyta and divided further based on the type of tissue present.

  Bryophyta – No conducting tissue
  Pteridophyta – possess conducting tissues but no seeds
  Spermatophyta – Possess flowers and seeds


Kingdom: Metazoa

It is an animal kingdom and having eukaryotic cells. They do not possess thick cell wall and shows heterotrophic mode of nutrition. They show well developed organ system and further classified based on tissue organization, number of germinal layers, development of jaws and limbs etc.
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